Particularity economic and social development of regions

Social Adaptation of Rural Migrants: Theoretic and Empirical Aspects of Research

Authors: Lushnikova O. L.

Abstract

The article reveals theoretic and empirical aspects of research concerning social adaptation of rural migrants. Rapidly changing conditions of the modern society, acceleration of urbanization processes, increased intensity of migration flows make it necessary to rethink theoretic and methodological aspects of studying social adaptation of rural migrants. The article is aimed at development of theoretic ideas and clarification of empirical aspects of research of social adaptation of rural migrants. The author gives an analysis of the concept of “adaptation”, compares it with the concept of “socialization”, and clarifies the concept of “social adaptation”. Empirical research is associated with studying motivational components of migratory behavior, adaptive behavior of rural migrants, personal transformations, factors of adaptation, as well as criteria indicating the completion of the adaptation process. It is substantiated that the success of social adaptation of rural migrants depends on the reasons for the migration of the rural population, including economic, social, personal, environmental reasons, and reasons related to ambitions. Several options of adaptive behavior strategies of rural migrants in the urban environment are singled out depending on different vectors: activity - passivity, optimism - realism - pessimism. It is shown that the process of social adaptation depends on the preservation of the original identity. The author distinguishes several options for the formation of urban identity, depending on the preservation of the original identity (conformism, ritualism, retreatism, centrism, cosmopolitanism). An analysis of factors influencing success of social adaptation of rural migrants is given. External and internal criteria of successful social adaptation of rural migrants are defined. An analysis of economic, domestic, technological, cultural, psychological and social criteria of completion of the adaptation process for rural migrants is given. The conclusion is drawn on complication of the social adaptation process for rural migrants due to complication of the social reality, diversity of the urban environment, as well as technologized nature of the space, which creates additional difficulties. A phenomenon of “reverse migration” is also noted, i. e. relocation from the city to the countryside.

Key Words

adaptation, social adaptation, migration of rural population, rural migrants, adaptive behavior, difficulties of adaptation, adaptation completion criteria